Cite using Harvard

Harvard, citations, references


In-text citation


(Last name/Organisation, Year)

Parenthetical citations
... (De Verdier, 2023).
... (National Library of Sweden, 2021).
... (United Nations, 2019).
... (United Nations, n.d.).

Narrative citations (when the author is mentioned in the text)
According to the National Library of Sweden (2021) the Codex Gigas...
United Nations (n.d.) claims...


Reference list entry


Organisation/Last name, First name and Last name, First name (Year). Title of webpageName of website/Publisher. URL [Accessed: date].

De Verdier, Frida (2023). Sigismund's book collection. Uppsala University Library. [Accessed: 2023-07-21].

National Library of Sweden (2021). History of the Codex Gigas. National Library of Sweden. [Accessed: 2021-05-09].

United Nations (2019). Eight things you need to know about the sanitation crisis. United Nations. [Accessed: 2021-07-02].

United Nations (n.d.). International Moon Day 20 July. United Nations. [Accessed: 2023-07-21].



  • If there is no stated author for the webpage, put the organisation responsible for it as author.
  • If the year of publication of the webpage you want to cite is unknown, write "n.d." (short for no date) in both the in-text citation and the reference list entry.
  • The date of retrieval should be stated for all electronic sources, in addition to the year of publication. This is written as shown above, in square brackets with the word "Accessed:". The reason for this is that electronic sources may theoretically get edited and the information in them can then change. For this reason it is important to indicate at what time you studied an electronic source.