Cite using Harvard

Harvard, citations, references

Secondary sources

Secondary sources should in general not be used as cited sources. Always try to get access to the primary source if possible and cite it instead. When this is not possible you can follow these instructions:

In-text citations

In the text you should make it clear that the source you are citing is in turn referring to another source. In the following example you have read a book by Vera Olsson and in it found a quote by Takamura that you want to use in your text.

Takamura, claims that... (Takamura, 1942 cited in Olsson, 1998, p.72-73).


In the reference list

The reference list should only contain publications that you have read. In this case it is the secondary source (the book by Vera Olsson). The primary source is not included in the list, since you haven't read it. The reference to the secondary source should follow the usual format for the source type in question. In this example it is a book, so the reference would look like this:

Olsson, Vera (1998). Under the cherry trees. Västerås: Västerås Publishing.