Citation Guide


On these pages, we present one example of how you can cite sources according to the Harvard system. There are many varieties of how Harvard references can be formatted. Always check with your teacher or supervisor if there are other instructions for your assignment.

You can also look at other Harvard guides, for example:

Guide to the Harvard System of Referencing (University Library, Anglia Ruskin University, UK)

In-text citations

To cite a reference in the text of your work, place the author's surname and the year of publication in parenthesis, e.g.(Smith, 2012). All in-text citations must have fully detailed, corresponding entries placed in a reference list at the end of your assignment. Reference list entries should be arranged alphabetically by author's surname (or by organisation name).

Some examples of in-text citations:

There is a theory that... (Johnson, 2014).
This is supported by Johnson (2014) as well as Smith (2012).


One, two or three authors

(Lea and Street, 1998)
(Baumol, Litan and Schramm, 2007)


Four or more authors

Name the first author of the publication followed by et al.

(Booth et al., 2016)
According to Booth et al. (2016)...


Organisation as author

If there is no personal author but the work is published by an organisation, give the name of the organisation as author.

(Uppsala University, 2016)


If there is a widely known abbreviation for an organisation, that abbreviation can be used. But it is good practice to use the full name in the first citation.

First citation: (World Health Organization [WHO], 2017)
Following citations: (WHO, 2017)


No/unknown author

If there is no known author, you can cite a work by its title (in italics)

(Study - live - enjoy, 2014)


When quoting a reference, you should include the specific page number where the quotation was found.

(Johnson, 2014, p.34)