Citation Guide


Vancouver is a numbered style and the in-text citations consists of numbers in parentheses or square brackets, combined with a reference list at the end of the document sorted numerically. The same number is used for a work throughout a paper and there is only one reference list entry for each individual work.

Citing Medicine: The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers, 2nd ed.

Deakin guide to Vancouver (Deakin University, Australia)

In-text citations

The same number is used for a source throughout a paper. This number is determined by the first citation of the source, e.g. if a work is the fourth source cited in a paper, it will be referred to as (4) throughout the paper.

When two or more sources are referred to at the same point in the text, the relevant numbers are separated by commas: (1, 4, 12)

Three or more consecutive citations are joined by a hyphen: (8-11)

Reference list

Only one reference list entry should be provided for each work cited. The reference list is ordered numerically.

Author names

If a publication have more than six authors, list the first six authors followed by "et al.". Authors' family names are followed by their two-letter initials.

Journal titles

Journal titles are usually abbreviated. A list of abbreviations is available via PubMed/Medline.

Book / e-book

Hoffbrand AV, Pettit JE, Vyas P. Color atlas of clinical hematology. Philadelphia, Pa.: Mosby/Elsevier; 2010.

OECD. Sickness, disability and work : Breaking the barriers : A synthesis of findings across OECD countries. Paris: OECD; 2010.

von Gabain A, Klade C. Development of novel vaccines skills, knowledge and translational technologies. Vienna: Springer Vienna; 2012. Available from:

Robertson JL, Barling J, editors. The psychology of green organizations. New York: Oxford University Press; 2015.

Book chapter

DePalma RG. Combat TBI: History, epidemiology, and injury modes. In: Kobeissy FH, editor. Brain neurotrauma: Molecular, neuropsychological, and rehabilitation aspects [internet]. Frontiers in neuroengineering. Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press; 2015. Available from:

Vegas AJ, Anderson DG. High-throughput approaches. 2012. In: Polymers in biology and medicine [Internet]. Polymer science: A comprehensive reference; [457-84]. Available from:

Dissertation / thesis

Ahlberg P. Graphene implementation study in semiconductor processing [dissertation]. Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis; 2016.

Lidström S. Geographical variation in access to pharmacy services in New Zealand [master's thesis]: Uppsala University; 2015.

Journal article / electronic article

Gerhardt A, Scharf RE, Beckmann MW, Struve S, Bender HG, Pillny M, et al. Prothrombin and factor V mutations in women with a history of thrombosis during pregnancy and the puerperium. N Engl J Med. 2000;342(6):374-80.

Kim H, Seo EH, Lee SH, Kim BJ. The telomerase-derived anticancer peptide vaccine GV1001 as an extracellular heat shock protein-mediated cell-penetrating peptide. Int J Mol Sci. 2016;17(12).

Handoll HHG, Brorson S. Interventions for treating proximal humeral fractures in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev [Internet]. 2015; (11). Available from:

Newspaper article

Tarnopolsky M. Exercise. The Washington Post. 2018 January 7;Sect. B02.


National Library of Sweden. One million scanned pages : Digidaily digitizes Swedish newspapers 2012 [updated July 2; cited 2018 July 9]. Available from:

United Nations. Sustainable development goals: United Nations;  [cited 2018 July 2]. Available from: