Cite using Vancouver

Electronic theses and essays


Last name XX. Title [dissertation on the Internet/licentiate thesis on the Internet/degree project on the Internet/master's thesis on the Internet]. Place of publication: University; Year [cited year month day]. Available: URL


1. Amid Hägg, S. Sleep disturbances: Consequences and comorbidities [dissertation on the Internet]. Uppsala university; 2021 [cited 2022 August 23]. Available:

2. Adam J. Street Music, City Rhythms: The urban soundscape as heard by street musicians [master's thesis on the Internet]. Uppsala: Uppsala university; 2018 [cited 2021 January 1]. Available:
  • The date of retrieval should be stated for all electronic sources, in addition to the year of publication. This is written as shown above, in square brackets with the word "cited". The reason for this is that electronic sources may theoretically get edited and the information in them can then change. For this reason it is important to indicate at what time you studied an electronic source.

Printed theses and essays


Last name XX. Title [dissertation/licentiate thesis/degree project/master's thesis]. Place of publication: University; Year.


1. Nordbrandt, M. Modern talking: on the democratic roles of cross-cutting communication in a polarized world [dissertation]. Uppsala: Uppsala university; 2021.