Citation Guide

Citing different types of sources

The examples below follows the guidelines MLA 8th.

When creating a reference list, start by looking at the list of core elements. The works cited should include these elements in the following order:

  1. Author.
  2. Title of source.
  3. Title of container,
  4. Other contributors,
  5. Version,
  6. Number,
  7. Publisher,
  8. Publication date,
  9. Location.

 Each element should be followed by the punctuation mark shown here.

The last element, Location, can for example mean page numbers (for a book chapter), or a URL for an online source. Remove http:// in the beginning of a URL.

Book / E-Book

Last name, First name.Title of the Book. Publisher, Year.
Last name, First name, and First name Last name.Title of the Book. Publisher, Year.
Last name, First name, et al.Title of the Book. Publisher, Year.

One to three authors:
Fajans, Elizabeth, and Mary R. Falk. Scholarly Writing for Law Students: Seminar Papers, Law Review Notes and Law Review Competition Papers. 4th ed. St. Paul, MN: Thomson Reuters, 2011.

Sen, Amartya. Identity and Violence: The Illusion of Destiny. New York: W. W. Norton  & Co, 2006.

Four or more authors:
Booth, Wayne C., et al. The Craft of Research. 4th ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2016.

Chapter in a book

Last name, First name. "Title of the Chapter" Title of the Book, edited by First name Last name, Publisher, Year, pp. pages.

Judge, Anne. "French: A Planned Language?" French Today: Language in Its Social Context, edited by Carol Sanders, Cambridge University Press, 1993, pp. 7-26.

Dissertation / Thesis

Last name, First name. Title of Dissertation. Dissertation (or MA thesis). University, Year. URL.

Fowler, Nina. Walking the Plank of the Entrepreneurial University : The Little Spin-out That Could?. Dissertation, Uppsala University, 2017.

Blomqvist, Olof. A Clash of Kings : States, Captives and Loyalties During the Great Northern War.. MA thesis, Uppsala University, 2014.


Last name, First name. "Article Title." Title of Work, edition, volume number if applicable, year of publication, URL or DOI.

Word defined." Title of Work. Edition. Year of Publication. 

Ovesen, Jan. "Kultur." Nationalencyklopedin, vol. Bd 11, 1993, pp. 511-513.

"Occam's Razor". Encyclopedica Britannica Online. Encyclopedica Britannica, 2017,

Journal Article

Last name, First name. "Title of Article." Title of Journal, volume, issue, year, page range of article. Database, URL.

Scheuerman, William E. "Whistleblowing as Civil Disobediance: The Case of Edward Snowden". Philosophy & Social Criticism, vol. 40, no.7, 2014, pp. 609-628.

Cailleba, Patrice and Herbert Casteran. "Do Ethical Values Work? A Quantitative Study of the Impact of Fair Trade Coffee on Consumer Behavior." Journal of Business Ethics, vol. 97, no. 4, 2010, pp. 613-624. JSTOR, doi:10.1007/s10551-010-0528-8.

Newspaper Article

Last name, First name. "Title of Article." Title of Newspaper, day month year, page range of article. URL

Zingales, Luigi, and Guy Rolnik. "A Way to Own Your Social-Media Data." New York Times 1 Jul 2017, 23.

Video / Audio

Last name, First name/User-ID of Creator. "Title of film/video." Title of Website, Role and Name of Contributors, Version, Publisher, Day Month Year of Publication, URL.

Yavapai College Library. "Searching Databases." Youtube, 11 Oct. 2011. 

"For the Love of Spock". Directed by Adam Nimoy, 9 Sept 2016. Netflix,


Last name, First name. Name of Site. Publisher or sponsor of site, Day Month Year of publication (if available), URL.

Last nameFirst name. "Title of webpage". Name of Website. Publisher or sponsor of site, Day Month Year of publication (if available), URL.

It is optional to include the date of access. If no publication date is available, it is recommended to add an access date.

National Library of Sweden. "One Million Scanned Pages : Digidaily Digitizes Swedish Newspapers." July 2 2012,

Uppsala University Library. "Use the Library." Accessed 9 Jul 2018.