Citation Guide

1. Create a library

  • Open EndNote
  • Go to File and choose New
  • Save your EndNote library on your computer (never on a network area or a cloud storage)

When you create an EndNote library, a folder with the suffix .Data is also created. This folder and your EndNote library must always be saved at the same location on your computer.

You can have one or several EndNote libraries but it is recommended that you keep only one library.

2. Send references to EndNote

In most article databases and library catalogues you can easily send references to EndNote. Often, it is possible to mark and send several records at the same time. Look for an option to send or export references directly to EndNote or in RIS-format.

Depending on your web browser and the database that you are using, a pop up window may appear. Choose Open with EndNote or ResearchSoft Direct Export Helper.

Example from Scopus and Firefox. Choose Open with to send references directly into EndNote:

Sending references from PubMed

  • Tick the articles that you want to save.
  • Click on the link Send to and tick Citation manager.
  • Click on Create file.
  • A popup window opens: choose Open with: EndNote (or ResearchSoft Direct Export Helper).

Safari users (Mac)

Direct Export does not work well with safari and the downloaded file cannot automatically be opened with EndNote. Some alternatives for Mac users:

  • Go to Downloaded files and drag and drop the file onto the EndNote icon on the Dock.
  • Use another web browser (Firefox or Google Chrome).
  • Save the file to your computer. In EndNote to to File → Import → Import File. Next to Import Option, choose the database from which you saved the file, for instance PubMed (NLM). Click on Choose and select the file. Click Import.

Sending references from Web of Science

It is a good idea to choose Full Record under Record Content, when you export references from Web of Science. This way, DOI numbers, abstracts etc. will be included in your references.

Sending references from Google Scholar

Abstracts and DOI numbers are not always included when you send references from Google Scholar into EndNote, so if possible, use other databases as your first hand choice.

Make this setting to be able to send references to EndNote from Google Scholar: Go to Google Scholar settings. Under "Bibliography Manager" select the option "Show links to import citations into" and choose "EndNote" in the drop down box. Click on the "Save" button.

Instructional video: Direct Export from Google Scholar to EndNote or EndNote Online.

3. Add references manually

In some cases it is not possible to import references from databases. Instead, you need to add them manually to EndNote. Choose References → New Reference. In the new form, choose Reference Type for the material that you want to add and fill in the empty fields.

Enter names in the Author or Editor field in the following order: Last name, First name. Always enter one name per line. When you add an organization as an author, end the name with a comma: World Health Organization,

4. Insert citations and bibliography in a document

Open your EndNote library. Position the cursor at the location where you would like the citation. Select Insert Citation in the EndNote toolbar in Word and search for and select the reference(s) you wish to cite. Select Insert.

Edit a citation

If you wish to edit a citation, click on it and select Edit & Manage Citation(s) in the EndNote toolbar in Word. Now you can choose to omit the author name from the citation, add cited pages, or insert text before (prefix) or after (suffix) the citation.


Citing references in footnotes

First, create a footnote in Word and position the cursor in the footnote. Select Insert Citation in the EndNote toolbar in Word and search for and select the reference(s) you wish to cite. Select Insert.


Insert a bibliography

If instant formatting is enabled in Word (Instant Formatting is On), references will automatically be added to a bibliography in the end of the document. If Instant formatting is Off, click on Update Citations and Bibliography to add the bibliography in the document.


Change reference style

Select the style you wish to use in the EndNote toolbar. Choose among ca 500 styles that come with the installation of the programme: Select Another Style... or install more styles at


Remove field codes

In some occasions, you may need to remove Cite While You Write field codes before you share your document with a publisher or colleague. If you want to make manual changes to your bibliography, you also need to remove the EndNote connection. Select Convert Citations and Bibliography → Convert to Plain Text.

Once the field codes are removed, you cannot reformat or unformat your paper. Always make sure that you keep a copy with the field codes intact.

Note! Always save a version of your document with the EndNote connection intact!

5. Remove duplicates

Select References → Find duplicates in EndNote. EndNote will now display duplicates side by side, and you can compare them and select the one you wish to keep in your library. The older (first entered) reference will always appear in the left column.

Instructional video: Find Duplicates.

6. Make backups

You should make regular backups of your EndNote library. You can save an EndNote library with all of its contents (references and attachments) to a single compressed file. The Compressed Library can be moved to a cloud storage such as Dropbox, to a USB drive, or to your file area at the University network. Select File → Compressed Library.

If you need to restore your library, first move the compressed file to your computer hard drive and then double click to open it and continue working in your library.