Below you will find examples on how to cite using a few common reference styles. There are multiple variants of several of these styles. Therefore, the examples listed in this guide are suggestions on how to cite. Always check with your supervisor, teacher or department to determine the correct use of reference styles within your field. Regardless of which style you use, make sure to be consistent.
APA Style is outlined in Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6 ed., and is commonly used in the behavioral and social sciences.
Chicago is outlined in Chicago Manual of Style, 17 ed., published by University of Chicago Press. Chicago can be used either with footnotes or with in-text citations, along with a list of references at the end of the document.
Harvard comes in many variations, but is always characterized by in-text citations and a list of references at the end of the document. Harvard is widely used within the social sciences.
MLA is outlined in the MLA Handbook which is published by the Modern Language Association of America. It is characterized by in-text citations, and there should be a list of references at the end of the document. MLA is often used within linguistics, language studies and the humanities.
Oxford comes in many variations, but is always characterized by footnotes and a list of references at the end of the document. Oxford is commonly used within humanities, theology and law.
Vancouver (the numbered system) is commonly used within the medical and natural sciences. Citations consists of numbers within square brackets in the body of the text (in-text citations), combined with a reference list at the end of the document sorted numerically.
Reference management software
You can use a software to collect and organize your references, as well as to create in-text citations and bibliographies. Attend an open course at the library to learn more.