Citation Guide

Book / E-Book

Last name, Initial, Last name, Initial, Last name, Initial, Last name, Initial & Last name, Initial. (Year). Title of Book: Subtitle (edition
          other than the first). Place of PublicationPublisher. Accessed from http://...
Last name, Initial. (Year). Title of Book: Subtitle (edition other than the first). Place of Publication: Publisher.
Last name
, Initial. (Year). Title of Book: Subtitle (edition other than the first). Place of Publication: Publisher.

Booth, W. C., Colomb, G. G., Williams, J. M., Bizup, J., & Fitzgerald, W. T. (2016). The Craft of Research (4th ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
            Accessed from
Sen, A. (2006). Identity and Violence: The Illusion of Destiny. New York: W. W. Norton  & Co.
Wallwork, A. (2016). English for Writing Research Papers (2nd ed.). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Chapter in a book

Last name, Initials of Chapter Author (Year). Title of Chapter. In Last name, Initials of Editor (Ed.), Title of Book (Pages). Place of Publication: Publisher.

Wisberg, L. S. (2003). The Role of Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) in the Protection and Enforcement of Human Rights.

In Symonides, J. (Ed.), Human Rights: International Protection, Monitoring, Enforcement (pp. 347-372). Aldershot: Ashgate.

Dissertation / Thesis

Last name, Initials. (Year). Title of Dissertation/Thesis. (Level/Type of Thesis). University, Location.

Bjurström, P. (2011). On the Use of Bibliometrics for Domain Analysis: A Study of the Academic Field of Political Science in Europe.

(Master's Thesis), Uppsala University, Uppsala.​

Fowler, N. (2017). Walking the Plank of the Entrepreneurial University: The Little Spin-Out that Could? (Diss.). Uppsala University, Uppsala.


Title of Entry. (Date). In Title of Encyclopedia. Accessed Date, URL

Occam's razor. (n. d.). In Encyclopedica Britannica Online. Accessed 26 Jul 2017,

Journal article

Last name, Initials. (Year). Titel of Article. Name of Publication, Volume(Number/Issue), Page. doi:DOI-number

Cailleba, P., & Casteran, H. (2010). Do Ethical Values Work? A Quantitative Study of the Impact of Fair Trade Coffee on Consumer Behavior. 

Journal of Business Ethics 97.4, 613-624. doi:10.1007/s10551-010-0528-8

Scheuerman, W. E. (2014). Whistleblowing as Civil Disobediance: The Case of Edward Snowden. Philosophy & Social Criticism 40.7, 609-628.


Newspaper article

Last name, Initials. (Year, Date). Title of Article. Name of Publication, Page.

Zingales, L., & Rolnik, G. (2017, 1 Jul). A Way to Own Your Social-Media Data. New York Times , 23. 

Personal communication

Personal communication, such as letters, personal interviews, telephone conversations and email, can usually not be accessed by the reader. Therefore, cite them in your text but do not include them in the reference list.

According to A. Andersson... (personal communication, 25 October, 2017).

Some consider this to be false... (Respondent B, personal communication, 13 April, 2018).

However, if the personal communication is documented and recoverable (e.g. a recording or transcript), use the reference format appropriate for the source in which the communication is available (e.g. book, film).


Organization. (Year). Title of report. Retrieved from URL

H&M. (2017). Annual report 2017. Retrieved from

Statistics / Data

Last Name, Initial & Last Name, Initial. (Year). Title of dataset. Retrieved from: URL

Eurostat. (2017). House price index (2010 = 100) - quarterly data.

Retrieved from:

Johnson, J. C., Souva, M., & Smith, D. L. (2014). Replication data for: Market-Protecting Institutions and the World Trade Organization's Ability to

Promote Trade. Retrieved from:

Video / Audio

Title. (Year, date) [medium]. Place published: Distributor. Retrieved from URL

Last Name, Initial. (Year, date) Title [medium]. Retrieved from URL

Plånboken. (2015, December 4) [radioprogram]. Stockholm: Sveriges Radio, P1.

Kviselius, A., & Nääs, L. (2013, October 29). Hur, när och varför ska jag referera? [video] Retrieved from


Last Name, Initial. (Year). Title of document. Retrieved from URL

Organization. (Year). Title of document. Retrieved from URL

Z. Smith Reynolds Library, Wake Forest University. (2011). APA 6th edition: selected guide to citing resources.

Retrieved from

National Library of Sweden. (2012). One million scanned pages : Digidaily digitizes Swedish newspapers.

Retrieved from