Citation Guide


APA is outlined in Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6 ed., and is commonly used in the behavioral and social sciences.

In-text citations

APA is an author-date style, which means that you make in-text citations by placing the author's surname and the year of publication within parenthesis. If you mention the author in a sentence or passage, it is custom to place only the year within parenthesis. Ampersand (&) is only used in in-text citations and in the bibliography, not in the body of the text. If you are citing a source word for word, you should include a page number in the in-text citation. A few examples:

In some cases ... (Lea & Street, 1998).
Lea and Street (1998) discovered that ...
According to both Bell (2006) and Furuland (2010) ...
Trauma can be defined as "overwhelming psychological threat" (Garbarino, 2008, p. 17).

Citing several sources at once

When citing two or more sources in a sentence or passage, you list your sources alphabetically and separated by semicolon in the in-text citation:

According to several researchers ... (Bell, 2006; Furuland, 2010; Lea & Street, 1998).

Author names in in-text citations

Two authors

Both surnames are included each time you cite the source:

(Nutefall & Chadwell, 2012)
According to Nutefall and Chadwell (2012) there is...

Three, four or five authors

All surnames are included the first time you cite the source. Thereafter, only cite the first surname followed by et al. and the year:

(La Porta, Lopez-de-Silanes, Shleifer, & Vishny, 2000)
According to La Porta et al. (2000) there are...

Six or more authors

Only cite the first surname followed by et al. and the year:

(Moes et al., 2015)
According to Moes et al. (2015) ...

Author names in the bibliography

All references cited in your text should be included in the bibliography. The sources are sorted in alphabetical order by surname or organisation name. If no surname nor organisation name is available, the reference is sorted by title.

In APA, the first line of a reference is left aligned, with subsequent lines indented to the right by 5-7 spaces or 1.25 cm.

One to seven authors

All authors are listed in the bibliography:

Scheier, M. F., Weintraub, J. K., & Carver, C. S. (1986). Coping with stress: Divergent strategies of optimists and pessimists. Journal of
        Personality and Social Psychology,
51(6), 1257-1264.

Eight authors or more

The first six authors are listed, then a three dot elipse followed by the last author:

Richmond, R., Skugarevsky, O., Yang, S., Kramer, M., Wade, K., Patel, R., . . . Martin, R. (2014). The association of early childhood cognitive
        development and behavioural difficulties with pre-adolescent problematic eating attitudes. Plos One, 9(8),